The envoy, George Mitchell, spent more than an hour huddling with Israel's prime minister and defense minister. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's office said the talks "continued their discussions on moving the peace process forward."
Two lower-level Israeli officials will head to Washington this week for further discussions, it added. Mitchell did not comment publicly after the meeting and was returning to Washington, U.S. officials said.
Mitchell, a former U.S. senator and mediator of Northern Ireland's peace deal, has been shuttling between Israeli and Palestinian officials for months, trying to restart negotiations that broke down late last year.
Mitchell met with Netanyahu and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas late last week before traveling to Cairo over the weekend to meet with Egyptian officials, who often play leading roles in mediating the conflict.
Even with the Nobel Peace Prize awarded to his boss, Mitchell appeared to have made little progress in persuading the adversaries to soften their positions.